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Li-Ion Batteries

General information on Li-Ion batteries
High Energy Density
The weight of a lithium ion battery is approximately one half compared to a nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride battery of similar capacity. Moreover, the volume of the lithium ion battery is 40 to 50% smaller than that of a nickel-cadmium and 20 to 30% smaller than that of a nickel-metal hydride battery. Energy density increases by 5% yearly.

High Voltage
A single lithium ion cell has a voltage of 3.2V (mean value), which is approximately equal to either three nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride cells connected in series.

The lithium ion battery does not contain any polluting substances such as cadmium, lead, mercury, etc.

Non-metal Lithium
The lithium ion battery does not employ any lithium metal. It is not governed by aircraft transportation rules relating to carrying lithium batteries in passenger airplanes.

Long Cycle Life
Under normal conditions, the lithium ion battery has a life of more than 2000 charge/discharge cycles.

No Memory Effect
The lithium ion battery is free from the so-called memory effect, a phenomenon seen in nickel-cadmium in which the apparent battery capacity decreases when shallow charge and discharge cycles are repeated.

Inner Resistance
The inner resistance is a crucial factor for the overall performance of the lithium ion battery. The lower the inner resistance, the lower the heat generation, the higher the output voltage under high load, the longer the lifetime (and the longer the range in the case of a vehicle such as an e-bike or e-scooter). Good values are between 0.16 - 0.20 mOhm.

Fast Charge Capacity
The lithium ion cell can be fully charged in 1 to 2 hours (or even less), using a constant-current/constant-voltage (CC/CV) type dedicated charger with a rated voltage of 4.2V per cell.

Battery Management System (BMS)
For packs containing over 5 cells in series, a Battery Management System should be used. A BMS optimizes the lifetime of the cells by controlling the charging and discharging of each cell.
Due to this battery technology's excellent features, such as high energy density, high voltage, good storage and life cycle characteristics, these batteries are widely used for 3C applications such as:

- UPS (uninterruptable power supply),
- power source in villages, in the country or any outside facilities,
- power source for a variety of electric vehicles such as bikes/scooters (see sylent wheels), cars, buses, boats, submarines or airplanes,
- laptop, notebook or tablet computers.

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